Staff Profile

Frieder Klein

Preferred Name: Frieder Klein




Phone: 508 289 3355


Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,   Mail Stop 08
266 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, MA 02543

Research Statement

My research concerns the chemical interactions between aqueous fluids and rocks in a broad array of geodynamic settings, including mid-ocean ridges, rifted margins, subduction zones, and ophiolites, as well as other planets, moons, and meteorite parent bodies that once had – or still have – liquid water.  Trained as a marine geologist, petrologist, and aqueous geochemist, my research approach is to integrate field geology, analytical geochemistry and spectroscopy, hydrothermal laboratory experiments, and thermodynamics to address the fundamental problem of how fluid-rock reactions work. Over the past 10 years, I have studied the reaction pathways and redox conditions during serpentinization, abiotic synthesis of organic compounds, carbonation of serpentinized peridotite, mass transfer reactions between mafic and ultramafic rocks, mass transfer between the igneous oceanic basement and seawater during high- and low-temperature alteration processes, mixing of hydrothermal fluids with seawater, fluid inclusions, the subseafloor biosphere in serpentinite and gabbro, and other fascinating topics.

Select Research Projects:

  • Aqueous Alteration of a CI Chondrite Simulant Relevant to Enceladus and Other Primitive Solar System Objects: Constraints from Laboratory Experiments (NASA award #21-SSW21-0029, PI)
  • Collaborative Research: A Quantitative Study of Reaction Pathways in Oceanic Serpentinites (NSF award #2214207, PI)
  • Collaborative Research: Understanding the Influence of Tectonic Setting on the Depth of Magmatic Processes in the Mid-ocean Ridge System (NSF award #2135901, Co-PI)
  • The Origin of Abiotic Hydrocarbons in Seafloor Serpentinization Systems (NSF award #1634032, PI)
  • Experimental Investigations of Peridotite-H2O-CO2 Interactions under Hydrothermal Conditions: A Study of Carbon Sequestration and Abiotic Synthesis of Organic Compounds (NSF award #1427274, PI)
  • Collaborative Research: Delineating The Microbial Diversity and Cross-domain Interactions in The Uncharted Subseafloor Lower Crust Using Meta-omics and Culturing Approaches (NSF award #1658031, Co-PI)
  • Quantifying the Volume Changes During Serpentinization of Peridotite using Hydrothermal Laboratory Experiments and X-ray Microtomography (NSF award #1551431, PI)
  • The Petrology of Abyssal Serpentinites: New Insights from Phase Petrology and Geochemical Reaction Path Modeling (NSF award #1059534, PI)
  • Experimental serpentinization of iron-rich olivine for application to Mars and icy satellites (NASA award, Co-I)
  • PIRE: ExTerra Field Institute and Research Endeavor (E-FIRE) (NSF award #1545903)
  • Collaborative Research: Carbonation of Serpentinite in the San Andreas Fault: How Fluid-rock Interactions Impact Aseismic Creep (NSF award #1220280, PI)
  • Exploring for Hydrothermal Activity at Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 0°55’N (Dalio Foundation, PI)

Lab Members:

Former Lab Members:


  • [49] Zhang, Y., Palin, R., Gazel., E., Gaetani, G., Klein, F. (submitted) Depleted magmas record the onset of modern cold subduction at the end of Earth’s middle age Submitted to Science Advances.[48] *Codillo, E.A., Klein, F., Marschall, H.M. (in review) Preferential formation of chlorite over talc during Si-metasomatism of ultramafic rocks in subduction zones. Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters.

    [47] Zhang, Y., Gaetani, G., Gazel., E., Klein, F. (in review) Depletion of the mantle wedge induced by slab dehydration. Submitted to Science Advances.

    [46] McCollom, T.M., Hoehler, T., Fike, D., Bell, A., Klein, F., Moskowitz, B., Solheid, P. (in review) Formation of Mixed-layer Sulfide-hydroxide Minerals from the Tochilinite-Valleriite Group During Experimental Serpentinization of Olivine. Submitted to American Mineralogist.




  • [45] McCollom, T.M., Klein, F., Moskowitz, B., Solheid, P. (accepted) Experimental serpentinization of iron-rich olivine (hortonolite): Implications for hydrogen generation and secondary mineralization on Mars and icy moons. Submitted to Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.[44] Klein, F., Goldsby, D., Lin, J., Andreani, M. (2022) Carbonation of serpentinite in creeping faults of California. Geophysical Research Letters. 49, e2022GL099185.

    [43] *Codillo, E.A., Klein, F., Dragovic, B., Marschall, H.R., Baxter, E., Scambelluri, M., Schwarzenbach, E. (2022) Fluid-mediated mass transfer between mafic and ultramafic rocks in subduction zones. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 23, e2021GC010206.

    [42] McCollom, T.M., Klein, F., Ramba, M. (2022) Hydrogen generation from serpentinization of iron-rich olivine on Mars, icy moons, and other planetary bodies. Icarus, 372, 114754

    [41] Zhang, Y., Gazel, E., Gaetani, G., Klein, F. (2021) Serpentinite-derived slab fluids control the oxidation state of the sub-arc mantle. Science Advances, 7, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abj2515

    [40] *Coskun, Ö., Vuillemin, A., Schubotz, F., Klein, F. Sichel, S., Eisenreich, W., Orsi, W.D. (2021) Quantifying the effects of hydrogen on carbon assimilation in a seafloor microbial community associated with ultramafic rocks. The ISME Journal.

    [39] Umino, S., Moore, G.F., Boston, B. Coggon, R., Crispini, L., D’Hondt., S, Garcia, M.O., Hanyu, T, Klein, F., Seama, N., Teagle, D.A.H., Tominagana, M., Yamashita, M., Harris, M., Ildefonse, B., Katayama, I., Kusano, Y., Suzuki, Y., Trembath-Reichert, E., Yamada, Y., Abe, N., Xiao, N., Inagaki, F. (2021) Workshop Report: Exploring Deep Oceanic Crust off Hawaiʻi. Scientific Drilling, 29, 69–82.

    [38] Lin, H., *Tarnas, J.D., Mustard, J.F., Zhang, X., Wei, Y. Wan, W. Klein, F., Kellner, J.R. (2021) Dynamic Aperture Factor Analysis/Target Transformation (DAFA/TT) for Serpentine and Mg-Carbonate Mapping on Mars with CRISM Near-Infrared Data. Icarus, 355, 114168

    [37] Lamadrid, H., Zajacz, Z., Klein, F., Bodnar, R.J. (2021) Synthetic fluid inclusions XXIII. Effect of temperature and fluid composition on rates of serpentinization of olivine. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 292, 285-308.

    [36] *Jones, M.R., Soule, S.A., Liao, Y., *Brodsky, H., Le Roux, V., Klein, F. (2020) Quantitative vesicle analyses and total CO2 reconstruction in mid-ocean ridge basalts. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 407, 107109.

    [35] Klein, F., Humphris, S.E., Bach, W (2020) Brucite formation and dissolution in oceanic serpentinite. Geochemical Perspectives Letters, 16, 1-5.

    [34] Klein, F. & Le Roux, V. (2020) Quantifying the Volume Increase and Chemical Exchange During Serpentinization. Geology, 48, 552-556.

    [33] McCollom, T.M., Klein, F., Moskowitz, B., Berquó, T., Bach, W., Templeton, A. (2020) Hydrogen generation and iron partitioning during experimental serpentinization of olivine-pyroxene mixtures. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 282, 55-75.

    [32] Li, J., Mara, P., Schubotz, F., Sylvan, J.B., Burgaud, G., Klein, F., Beaudoin, D., *Wee, S.-Y., Dick, H., *Lott, S., Cox, R., *Meyer, L.A.E., *Quémener, M., Blackman, D.K., Edgcomb, V.P. (2020) Recycling and metabolic flexibility dictate life in the lower oceanic crust. Nature, 579, 250-255.

    [31] Klein, F., *Tarnas, J., Bach, W. (2020) Abiotic sources of molecular hydrogen on Earth. Elements, 16, 19-24.

    [30] McGlynn, S.E., Glass, J.B., Johnson-Finn, K., Klein, F., Sanden, S.A., Schrenk, M.O., Ueno, Y., Vitale-Brovarone, A. (2020) Hydrogenation reactions of carbon on Earth: Linking methane, and margarine, and life. American Mineralogist, 105, 599-608.

    [29] *Grozeva, N.G, Klein, F., Seewald, J.S., Sylva, S. (2020) Chemical and isotopic analyses of hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions in olivine-rich rocks. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences 378, 20180431.

    [28] McCollom, T.M., Klein. F., Solheid, P., Moskowitz, B. (2020) The Effect of pH on rates of reaction and hydrogen generation during serpentinization. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences, 378, 20180428.

    [27] Morishita, T., Umino, S., Kimura, J.I., Yamashita, M., Ono, S., Michibayashi, K., Tominaga, M., Klein, F., Garcia, M. (2019) Workshop report on hard rock drilling into mid-Cretaceous Pacific oceanic crust on the Hawaiian North Arch. Scientific Drilling, 26, 47-58.

    [26] Klein, F., *Grozeva, N.G., Seewald, J.S. (2019) Abiotic methane synthesis and serpentinization in olivine-hosted fluid inclusions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116, 17666-17672.

    [25] *Miller, W.G.R, Maclennan, J., Shorttle, O., Gaetani, G.A., Le Roux, V., Klein, F. (2019). Estimating the carbon content of the deep mantle with Icelandic melt inclusions. Earth & Planetary Science Letters., 523, 115699.

    [24] *Albers, E., Bach, W., Klein, F., Menzies, C.D., Lucassen, F., Teagle, D.A.H (2019) Fluid-rock interactions in the shallow Mariana forearc: carbon cycling and redox conditions. Solid Earth, 10, 097-930,

    [23] *Jones, M., Wanless, V.D., Soule, S.A., Kurz, M.D., Mittelstaedt, E., Fornari, D.J., Curtice, J., Klein, F., Le Roux, V. *Brodsky, H., *Péron, S., *Schwartz, D. (2019). New constraints on mantle carbon from Mid-Atlantic Ridge popping rocks. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 511, 67-75.

    [22] Parnell-Turner, R.E. Mittelstaedt, E., Kurz, M.D., *Jones, M. Soule, S.A. Klein, F. Wanless, V.D., Fornari, D.J. (2018) The final stages of slip and volcanism on an oceanic detachment fault at 13°48’N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems,

    [21] Humphris, S.E. and Klein, F. (2018) Progress in deciphering the controls on the geochemistry of fluids in seafloor hydrothermal systems. Annual Review of Marine Science, 10, 315-343.

    [19] Klein, F., Marschall, H.R., Bowring, S.A., Humphris, S.E., *Horning, G.W. (2017) Mid-ocean ridge serpentinite in the Puerto Rico Trench: From seafloor spreading to subduction. Journal of Petrology, 58, 1729-1754.

    [18] *Lamadrid, H., Rimstidt, J., Schwarzenbach, E., Klein, F., Urlich, S., Dolocan, A., Bodnar, R. (2017) Effect of water activity on rates of serpentinization of olivine. Nature Communications, 8, doi: 10.1038/ncomms16107.

    [17] *Grozeva, N.G, Klein, F., Seewald, J.S., Sylva, S. (2017) Experimental study of carbonate formation in oceanic peridotite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 199, 264-286.

    [16] McCollom, T.M., Klein, F., Robbins, M., Moskowitz, B., Berquó, T.S., Jöns, N., Bach, W., Templeton, A. (2016) Temperature trends for reaction rates, hydrogen generation, and partitioning of iron during experimental serpentinization of olivine. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 181, 175-200.

    [15] Klein, F., Humphris, S.E., Guo, W., Schubotz, F., Schwarzenbach, E.M., Orsi, W. (2015) Fluid mixing and the deep biosphere of a fossil Lost City-type hydrothermal system at the Iberia Margin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112, 12036-12041.

    [14] Salman, V., Yang, T., Berben, T., Klein, F., Angert, E., Teske, A. (2015) Calcite-accumulating large sulfur bacteria of the genus Achromatium in Sippewissett Salt Marsh. The ISME Journal, 1-12.

    [13] Klein, F., *Grozeva, N.G., Seewald, J.S., McCollom, T.M., Humphris, S.E., Moskowitz, B., Berquó, T.S., Kahl, W.-A. (2015) Experimental constraints on fluid-rock interactions during incipient serpentinization of harzburgite. American Mineralogist 100, 991-1002.

    [12] Kahl, W.A., Jöns, N., Bach, W., Klein, F., Alt, J.C. (2015) Ultramafic clasts from the South Chamorro serpentine mud volcano reveal a polyphase serpentinization history of the Mariana forearc mantle. Lithos 227, 1-20.

    [11] Klein, F., Bach, W., Humphris, S.E., Kahl, W.A., Jöns, N., Moskowitz, B., Berquó, T. (2014) Magnetite in seafloor serpentinite − some like it hot. Geology 42, 135-138.

    [10] Klein, F., and McCollom, T. M., (2013) From serpentinization to carbonation: new insights from a hydrothermal injection experiment. Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 379, 137-145.

    [9] Klein, F., Bach, W., and McCollom, T. M., (2013) Compositional controls on hydrogen generation during serpentinization of ultramafic rocks: Lithos, 178, 55-69.

    [8] Bach, W., Jöns, N., Klein, F. (2012) Metasomatism within ocean crust, in Harlov., D, & Austrheim, H., ed., Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Springer, 253-288.

    [7] Klein, F. and Garrido, C.J., (2011) Thermodynamic constraints on mineral carbonation of serpentinized peridotite, Lithos 126, 147-160.

    [6] Jöns, N., Bach, W., Klein, F. (2010) Magmatic influence on reaction paths and element transport during serpentinization. Chemical Geology, 274, 196–211.

    [5] Klein, F., Bach, W., Jöns, N., McCollom, T., Moskowitz, B. and Berquo, T. (2009) Iron partitioning and hydrogen generation during serpentinization of abyssal peridotites from 15°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73, 6868-6893.

    [4] Klein, F. and Bach, W. (2009) Fe-Ni-Co-O-S phase relations in peridotite-seawater interactions. Journal of Petrology, 50, 37-59.

    [3] Bach, W. and Klein, F. (2009) The petrology of seafloor rodingites: Insights from geochemical reaction path modeling. Lithos, 112, 103-117.

    [2] Nakamura, K., Morishita, T. Bach, W., Klein, F., Hara, K., Okino, K., Takai, H. and Kumagai, H. (2009) Serpentinized troctolites exposed near the Kairei Hydrothermal Field, Central Indian Ridge: Insights into the origin of the Kairei hydrothermal fluid supporting a unique microbial ecosystem. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 280, 128-136.

    [1] Klügel, A. and Klein, F., 2006. Complex magma storage and ascent at embryonic submarine volcanoes from the Madeira Archipelago. Geology, 34, 337-340.



  • Hand, K., Phillips, C.B., Chyba, C.F., Toner, B., Katija, K., Orphan, V., Huber, J. Cavanaugh, C.M. Carlson, M., Christner, B., Templeton, A., Seewald, J.S., Hofgartner, J.D., Amend, J.P., Orcutt, B.N., Bartlett, D.H., Falkowski, P., Anderson, R., Spear, J.R., Shank, T., Fischer, W.W., Hazen, R.M., Hoehler, T. D’Hondt, S.,  Pitesky, J., Lynch, K., Shock, E.L., Craft, K., Boyd, E., House, C.H., Reysenbach, A.L., Glass, J., Fike, D., Baross, J.A., Gogarten, J.P., Kaçar, B., El-Naggar, M., Murray, A.E., Dupont, C., Scully, J., Rothschild, L., Trembath-Reichert, E., Klein, F., Cohen, P.A., Gile, G.H., Lloyd, K., Dekas, A., Delaney, J.R., Skidmore, M., Buongiorno, J., Rogers, K., Hofmann, A., Brazelton, W.J., Anbar, A., Manalang, D.A., Stevenson, B., Neuer, S., Hara, E., Nordheim, T., Shapiro, R., Bradley, A.S., Mikucki, J., Brown, M.E., Glamoclija, M., Reyes, C., Sánchez-Román, M., Farmer, J.D., Giovannelli, D., Suel, G., Trumbo, S., Cameron, M., Osburn, M., Bradley, J.A., Garcia-Pichel, F., Steen, A.D., Marlow, J., Trubl, G., Robinson, K., Caro, T., Fulfer, V., Parker, C.W., Feyhl-Buska, J., and Roussel, A. (2021). On the Past, Present, and Future Role of Biology in NASA’s Exploration of our Solar System. Bulletin of the AAS, 53(4).
  • Alt, J., Bach, W., Beard, J., Edwards, K., Frost, R., Früh-Green, G., Godard, M., Ildefonse, B., Jöns, N., Klein, F. and McCaig, A. (2009) Drilling in serpentine sea. White paper INVEST, Bremen.
  • Petersen, S., Augustin, N., Cherkashov, G., Fischer, S., Franz, L., Han, X., Klein, F., Maggiulli, M., Ockert, C. Perner, M., Peters, M., Rahders, E. Rudzitis, E., Smith, D., Stepanova, T., Storm, S., Strauss, H. and Zhou, N. (2007) Shallow-drilling of the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field at 14°45‘N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge using a new lander-type seafloor drill. InterRidge News, 16, 11-13.

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